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al-Mahdi is "the rightly-guided one" who, according to Islamic Hadiths (traditions), will come before the end of time to make the entire world Muslim.  Over the last 1400 years numerous claimants to the mantle of the Mahdi have arisen in both Shi`i and Sunni circles.  Modern belief in the coming of the Mahdi has manifested most famously in the 1979 al-`Utaybi uprising of Sa`udi Arabia, and more recently in the ongoing Mahdist movements (some violent) in Iraq, as well as in the frequently-expressed public prayers of former Iranian President Ahmadinezhad bidding the Mahdi to return and, in the larger Sunni Islamic world, by claims that Usamah bin Ladin might be the (occulted) Mahdi.  Now in 2014 Mahdism is active in Syria, as the jihadist opposition group Jabhat al-Nusra claims to be fighting to prepare the way for his coming; and in the new "Islamic State/caliphate" spanning Syrian and Iraqi territory, as its leadership promotes the upcoming apocalyptic battle with the West at Dabiq, Syria.  This site will track such Mahdi-related movements, aspirations, propaganda and beliefs in both Sunni and Shi`i milieus, as well as other  Muslim eschatological yearnings.
For a primer on Mahdism, see my 2005 article, "What's Worse than Violent Jihadists?," at the History News Network: http://hnn.us/articles/13146.html; for more in-depth info, see the links here to my other writings, including my book on Mahdism.

Friday, August 22, 2014

Losing Your Brains, Not Just Your Head, Over Islam
When I wrote "Beheading in the Name of Islam" for "Middle East Quarterly" in 2005, I did not anticipate it becoming the defining article on the topic--although I fully expected my piece to remain relevant for the forseeable future, as has proved out. Last year, after the beheading of Lee Rigby by two Muslims in the UK, I was interviewed on topic by "BBC-Ireland." This week, in the wake of the decapitation of James Foley by the self-styled Islamic State, I've been on two different BBC programs, as well as American liberal commentator Alan Colmes' show, and interviewed by the French newspaper "Libération."

Here are the relevant radio links:

1) "The Jonathon Vernon-Smith Show," 8.22.14 on BBC "Three Counties Radio:" http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p024hm9n  I come on right after the 4" mark, then after a break and some other comments by the host he interviews me for 5-6 minutes.  Besides beheading in Islam, we delve into the degree to which IS[IS] is simply following Islamic doctrines and Muhammad's historical example to the letter, or whether IS is misrepresenting Islam.  What's particularly illuminating are the subsequent remarks by Muslim callers.  One female Muslim seems never to have read the Qur'an, or to know that Muhammad himself ordered beheadings; another chap named "Lutf" is an Ahmadi Muslim, a member of a heterodox (many Muslims says heretical) sect who, thus, has little standing to be speaking in the name of "Islam" in toto.

2) "BBC Radio 5 Live" with Eleanor Oldroyd, 8.21.14: http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b04dmcrh
Once again, although in less detail than with JVS, we discuss the extent to which IS is indeed Muslim.  I come on at the 8:35 mark.

3) "The Alan Colmes Show," 8.21.14: http://radio.foxnews.com/2014/08/20/how-will-the-us-respond-to-the-death-of-james-foley/
Mr. Colmes, a well-known liberal commentator here in the US, makes it his mission to try to refute my points about IS being legitimately Islamic, and do so in rather obstreperous (and fact-deprived) fashion. 

Listen and decide for yourselves who makes a better case based on the facts.

Alibeheadingalharith.jpeg
Ali beheading Nadir b. al-Harith, a poet who had mocked "the prophet," at Muhammad's directive.  How can IS be "un-Islamic" when it's following the example of its founder?
1:07 pm edt          Comments

Thursday, August 21, 2014

IS[IS]: Still Beheading Like It's The End Of The World
The “Islamic State” [IS], formerly the “Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham” [ISIS or ISIL—the latter if one prefers “Levant”], ended Ramadan 1435/2014 with another issue of its propagandistic “Dabiq” magazine. (Issue #1 thereof, which had come out at the beginning of the Islamic holy month, I dissected here.)

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This second issue is book-ended with apocalyptic references: p. 2 repeats the Abu Mus`ab al-Zarqawi (who went to meet the huris, 2006) quote—adduced several times in issue #1—about the spark that had been lit in Iraq eventually burning the “crusader armies in Dabiq;” while the final page excerpts a hadith foretelling the Muslim conquest of Arabia, Persia, Rome and the defeat of the Dajjal (the “Deceiver,” the Islamic antichrist figure).  IS’s flagship publication also brags that the group is coming for Palestine and, as per another hadith, that it will “fight the barbaric jews and kill those of them hiding behind the gharqad trees…” But the second installment of “Dabiq,” unlike the first, does not obsess about the End Times breaking into today’s Middle East; rather, it focuses like a Bond supervillain laser beam on two related topics: the Biblical/Qur’anic flood, and the Islamic practice of mubahalah. 

The Flood, which is the title of the entire issue, is adduced because the Islamic State posits  the state of the world to be just as it was in the time of prophet Nuh—with even the Muslims so ignorant of true religion (Islam, of course) that they are in need of saving. And the Ark today is none other than the Islamic State, where true shari`ah is enforced and where no one is “free to choose”—because the witless masses are incapable of choosing religious truth, and so must have it imposed upon them.  Moderate Muslims who believe in choice and “peaceful means of change” are fools spouting “twisted methodology.”  Just as in prophet Nuh’s time, “it’s either me or the flood.”

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I don't know...I might take my chances and swim.

 
“Dabiq”#2 goes on at length about “the widespread ignorance amongst the people”—meaning Muslims, who “are like a hundred camels amongst which you can’t find any that are fit for riding.”  Only by fleeing to the Ark of the Islamic State can Muslims be saved from “baathism, secularism, liberalism, democracy or anything else that would contradict the essence of tawhid [Islamic teaching of strict “oneness” of Allah].”   IS also devotes almost ¼ of this entire publication to explicating mubahlah and invoking it over against their opponents—mainly Jabhat al-Nusrah. Mubahalah comes from the verb bahala, which can mean either “to curse” or “to supplicate/implore Allah.”  It is, in essence, a religious ordeal in which two disputing religious parties summon Allah as witness to curse the incorrect/dishonest one.  It is referenced in Sura `Ali ‘Imran [III]:39ff, and explicated by later Muslim commentators as referring to a dispute between Muhammad and some Christians from Najran over the position of Jesus.  IS, perhaps feeling the sting of criticism from its erstwhile allies, challenges JN (as well as Syria’s Islamic Front) to trial-by-mubahalah—confident that it is entirely within Allah’s will.   The only other major theme which IS pushes in this issue of “Dabiq” is the demand for (Sunni) Muslims to migrate to the domains of the new caliphate, or if that is not possible at least to “organize bay`at (pledges of allegiance) to the Khalifah Ibrahim” among family, friends and neighbors and post them on the Internet.  Much of the rest of this magazine—some 18 pp. out of the total of 44—consists of photographs of the usual jihadist favorite subjects: dead Kurds and Shi`is, dynamited Shi`i shrines and mosques, triumphant bearded and heavily armed caliphal warriors “liberating” areas of Syria and Iraq. It ends with the aforementioned hadith predicting that the Muslims would go from conquest to conquest, ultimately prevailing over even the Dajjal. 

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Urban renewal, courtesy of IS: the dynamited tomb/shrine of Ahmad al-Rifa`i, founder of the Rifa`i Sufi order. 
 
Observations:
1) This issue of “Dabiq” appears more defensive, indeed apologetic, than the first one.  The invoking of mubahalah clearly indicates that criticism from other Muslims (not from Obama or David Cameron) has had some effect.   Perhaps the rector of al-Azhar or the Grand Mufti of Saudi Arabia should take IS up on the mubahalah challenge, since the group clearly takes the issue very seriously and would have its legitimacy degraded by Allah failing to curse the Egyptians or Saudis (although IS spokesjihadists might try to claim that any negative events in those countries amounted to evidence of divine retribution for failing the test).

2) Once again, creating such a glossy and lengthy publication in English demonstrates that the newly-minted caliphate is trying to manipulate Western, or at least Western Muslim, public opinion.  Considering how many British (and perhaps also, now, American) volunteers it has attracted, continuing such a strategy makes sense.


3) Although, as already noted, this second installment of “Dabiq” is less eschatological than the first one, it does nonetheless continue to invoke Islamic apocalyptic themes—showing either that the IS leadership is enamored of the End Times, it knows the resonance of such a theme for many (Western/Westernized) Muslims—or both. 

4) I would maintain that IS atrocities like the beheading of James Foley and the mass murders of Shi`is and Yazidis are, in effect, "bizarre rituals intended to bring about the end of the world"--or at least to spark the Mahdi's coming.  I truly think that IS has passed into the realm of trying to hotwire the apocalypse.   God willing no one is stupid enough to try and find "moderate ISIS" with whom to negotiate.

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IS human sacrifice of American journalist James Foley.  It won't induce the coming of the Mahdi--but hopefully it will cause the avenging coming of American military forces.

12:59 pm edt          Comments

Sunday, July 20, 2014

Is Insisting Every Adulterer Must Get Stoned REALLY "Extremist" in Islam?

A few days ago the Iraqi-Syrian caliphate meted out the punishment of stoning for a woman accused of adultery.  Predictably, many media outlets decried the "extremists" who carried out such a heinous sentence.

But is stoning in such cases really "extremist" according to Islamic doctrines and public opinion?  No. There are at least
five authoritative hadiths--sayings going back to Islam's founder, Muhammad--which mandate such a method of execution for adulterers.  And according to Pew data from 2012, in many Muslim countries of the Mideast, Africa and South Asia large majorities want shari`ah to be implemented, and most of them in turn favor stoning for adulterers/adulteresses:

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The "prophet" of Islam sanctioned stoning for adultery; the practice was legal praxis in many Islamic societies across the 14 centuries from his time to today; and clear majorities of Muslims in many countries approve of it.  How, then, is it "extremist?"  Brutal, harsh, vindictive, bloody, barbaric, outmoded--but according to Islamic history and modern sentiments, stoning is not "extremist" at all. 

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Public stoning in Qajar Iran (19th century). 

Apologists can sputter all they want, but the fact is that many of the world's Muslims would not feel that what ISIS just did is beyond the pale; on the contrary, like the Taliban or Boko Haram, ISIS at least has the courage of its Qur'anic and Muhammadan convictions--appalling as that may be.
For those (liberals and Muslims) who stupidly maintain that there is no difference between Islam and Christianity, between Muslims and Christians--I leave you with this clip from "Jesus of Nazareth."

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Gospel of St. John, 8:1-11.  Quite a contrast from Muhammad's example.

5:03 pm edt          Comments

Monday, July 14, 2014

New Islamic State Magazine "Dabiq": Western Forces On the Eve of Destruction
Since the Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham [Greater Syria] declared the resurrection of the caliphate a few weeks ago, analysts and journalists have focused on the ramifications of that putative political office for the Islamic world.  However, at the start of Ramadan the new “Islamic State” and its caliph attempted to move the propaganda needle from the merely realpolitickally ridiculous to the apocalyptically awe-inspiring—by invoking Muslim eschatological traditions.

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The venue for this is an online English magazine entitled Dabiq: The Return of Khilafah, the 50 pages of which skillfully blend Qur’anic citations (10  in total), hadiths (12 of these), Salafi-jihadist exegesis and imagery to legitimize the new caliphate, motivate the faithful, and reach out to (primarily) Western Muslims.   The main proof text of this entire document is a lengthy hadith (saying attributed to Islam’s founder, Muhammad) about a major Last Hour battle.  Since IS’s magazine quotes the entire hadith twice, and refers to it several other times, the tradition is worth quoting in full: 

Abu Huraira reported Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: The Last Hour would not come until the Romans would land at al-A'maq or in Dabiq. An army consisting of the best (soldiers) of the people of the earth at that time will come from Medina (to counteract them). When they will arrange themselves in ranks, the Romans would say: Do not stand between us and those (Muslims) who took prisoners from amongst us. Let us fight with them; and the Muslims would say: Nay, by Allah, we would never get aside from you and from our brethren that you may fight them. They will then fight and a third (part) of the army would run away, whom Allah will never forgive. A third (part of the army). which would be constituted of excellent martyrs in Allah's eye, would be killed and the third who would never be put to trial would win and they would be conquerors of Constantinople. And as they would be busy in distributing the spoils of war (amongst themselves) after hanging their swords by the olive trees, the Satan would cry: The Dajjal has taken your place among your family. They would then come out, but it would be of no avail. And when they would come to Syria, he would come out while they would be still preparing themselves for battle drawing up the ranks. Certainly, the time of prayer shall come and then Jesus (peace be upon him) son of Mary would descend and would lead them in prayer. When the enemy of Allah would see him, it would (disappear) just as the salt dissolves itself in water and if he (Jesus) were not to confront them at all, even then it would dissolve completely, but Allah would kill them by his hand and he would show them their blood on his lance (the lance of Jesus Christ) [Sahih Muslim, “Kitab al-Fitan wa Ashrat al-Sa`ah,” #6924].   


Dabiq is just north of Aleppo
, near the Turkish border, and al-`Amaq/al-`Amq is in the same vicinity.  (Both are near Hatay, of Indiana Jones fame.)  A type of the eschatological battle described in this collection of Muslim b. al-Hajjaj (d. 875 AD) was fought at or near that location in 1516 between the Ottoman Turks and the Egyptian Mamluks.  The heirs of the Eastern Romans won that battle decisively, thanks to their effective use of artillery—thus leading to the four centuries of Ottoman dominance over the Arab Middle East.   To sum up this hadith: the Romans land an expeditionary force in northwest Syria; after heavy losses the Muslims defeat them and conquer “Constantinople;” the Dajjal—the “Deceiver,” or Muslim Antichrist—appears and then the returned Jesus dispatches him via melting or lance. 

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The last thing the Dajjal will ever see....

The writers credit the late Abu Mus`ab al-Zarqawi, decapitator extraordinaire of the IS[IS] predecessor organization the Islamic State in Iraq, with first linking the jihad there to the End Time battle at Dabiq.  Also, Dabiq has several pages extolling al-Zarqawi’s virtues and strategic vision for rec-creating the caliphate via these stages: 1) hijrah 2) jama`ah 3) destabilizing the taghut 4) tamkin 5) khilafah.   The original hijrah was  the “flight” of Muhammad and the small Muslim community from Mecca to Yathrib/Medina in 622 AD.  Ever since, this exploit has served as an example for groups of Muslims who deem their society and/or rulers insufficiently pious and who thus repeat the paradigm of flee, consolidate power and return to conquer.  Jama`ah is “community,” the expected group solidarity that hardens during hijrah.  Such a community then must act to undermine the tyrannical regime(s), the taghut (literally “despots” or “gorillas”).  As the oppressive rulers are rendered illegitimate  via jihad and tuwwahhush (literally “savagery” or “brutality”), controlling less and less territory, the true Muslims will be able to consolidate power (tamkin), ultimately leading to the caliphate—as IS[IS] has now proclaimed.  This rising new Muslim power “will trample the idol of nationalism, destroy the idol of democracy” and trigger the “demolition of Sykes-Picot” (the World War I British-French agreement which laid out plans for those two nations to rule over the Arab sections of the post-war Ottoman Empire).   This five-step program for attaining power can be repeated elsewhere—notably Yemen, Mali, Somalia, Sinai Peninsula, Waziristan, Libya, Chechnya, and Nigeria, as well as in certain areas of of Tunisia, Algeria, Indonesia, and the Philippines. 

 Dabiq also takes a number of pages to lay out an Islamic theological basis for the political power being claimed by “Caliph” Ibrahim.  The central argument is that “the concept of Imamah [political power] is from the millah [religious confession] of Ibrahim.”  Ibrahim, the Qur’anic version of the Biblical Abraham, was a “leader for mankind” because he followed Allah.  If al-Baghdadi’s true name is Ibrahim Awwad Ibrahim Ali al-Badri, this is likely a case of IS[IS] attempting to theologically leverage the “Caliph’s” birth and regnal name.  Those who oppose him are “weak-hearted” who “makes fools of themselves” and thus “renegades” whose necks it it legitimate to strike—to behead, that is.   The Islamic State has “gained control over territory larger than many states…lands formerly under the control of the historical Umawi khulafa’ [caliphs] of Sham and the `Abbasi khulafa’ of Iraq.” (The Umayyad ruled the nascent Islamic empire from Damascus, 661-750 AD; they were supplaned by the Abbasids, who ruled from Baghdad, 750-1258 AD.) Furthermore, “this new condition opens the path for the complete unification of all Muslim peoples and lands under the single authority of the Khalifah. May Allah protect this Khilafah state and continue guiding it until its legions fight the crusader armies who will gather near Dabiq.”   

There are several other topical sections of Dabiq:  one about the “liberated” areas, with pictures of allegedly welcoming throngs; another deploying gruesome pictures of dead and maimed or severely injured children, alleged targets of the Iraqi and Syrian government forces; yet another boasting of the thousands of repentant Rafidis (“refusers”), murtaddin (“apostates) or Safawis (the Safavid Empire was the one that ruled Iran from 1501-1722 and fought, tooth-and-nail, against the Sunni Ottomans) being captured and brought to the true Islamic faith.  (There are also plenty of photos of dead Shi`is, as well as some about to be executed by IS[IS].)     

This magazine even hijacks Tolkien: the massed Rohirrirm cavalry about to ride down upon the legions of Orcs beseiging Minas Tirith (from The Return of the King) are shown on the bottom of a page exalting the coming unification of all Muslims under the caliphate.   One can only surmise that such an image is aimed at portraying the IS[IS] as outnumbered battalions fighting heroically against seemingly insurmoutable odds—and, of course, winning, much as do the Muslims at the battle of Dabiq, vanquishing the Romans/crusaders with only the remaining 1/3 of their forces.  But, again, on the last page, Dabiq comes back around to eschatology—reprinting in toto the aforementioned hadith from Muslim b. al-Hajjaj.

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"A sword day! A red day! And the Sun rises--in the West!?" 

 Observations:

 1) The first English-language publication by the first caliphal state to be proclaimed since the demise of the Ottoman one 90 years ago is focused on apocalyptic themes—specifically an End Times’ Armageddonesque battle and the entry into history two of the three major Muslim eschatological figures: the Dajjal and Jesus.  “Caliph Ibrahim” and his staff would not have sanctioned such an endeavor without good reason.  The Muslims must have one man to lead them all against the evil Westerners in the great battle soon to come in Syria. Resistance to him is futile—and treasonous.  Join the inevitable winning side.  

2) The IS leadership no doubt knows anecdotally what Pew data told us empirically in 2012: that eschatological beliefs in the Islamic world are not “fringe” or “extreme” but, in point of fact, are quite mainstream, even in Sunni Islam: 42% of Muslims expect the Mahdi—Islam’s primary End Time actor—to come in their lifetimes, while 35% look for Jesus’ imminent return.   In Iraq, the figures are 72% and 64%, respectively.   Syria was not included in the polling, but considering the raging bloody civil war there, it’s quite likely that similar apocalyptic expectations exist—and the new caliphate aims to exploit such in Iraq, Syria and beyond.  And while Dabiq appears aimed at a Western (Muslim?) audience, and at Muslims living in diaspora here, it’s also quite accessible to anyone in the Middle East proper with a computer, Internet access and rudimentary English skills.  

3) Dabiq adduces, and advertises,  a hadith which speaks of the Antichrist and Jesus—but not the Mahdi.   Traditional exegesis of this (and similar) hadith(s) holds that the leader of Muslims at the Battle of Dabiq/al-`Amaq will be the Mahdi himself.  Does this mean that the IS leadership (and rank-and-file) considers Ibrahim to be not just caliph but Mahdi—but is simply loathe to say so in its first publication?  Or is the head of the “new caliphate” a ruler who prepares the way, and the realm, for the actual eschatological leader? 

4) Either way, the clearly-stated doctrine of tawwahhush gives this new, self-styled caliph a license not just to kill but to brutalize and sow panic as a means of undermining any target regime.  This is working in Syria and Iraq.  Is Jordan or Saudi Arabia next?  As my friend Dr. Ted Karasik wrote earlier today, tawwahhush might very well mean biological, chemical or nuclear/radiological warfare.  A caliph might decide to deploy such weapons, either on his own recognizance or as a means of hotwiring the apocalypse/arrival of the Mahdi.  And if Ibrahim/al-Baghdadi thinks himself the Mahdi, then any and all weapons are acceptable to wage war fi sabil Allah: “in the path of Allah.”   

5) As I noted in last week’s blogpost (Saturday, July 5, 2014), a number of Sunni factions are speaking out against the caliphal claims of the IS:  Lebanese shaykhs; professors at al-Azhar in Cairo; Yusuf al-Qaradawi; even pro-caliphate Hizb al-Tahrir.  To this list we can now add current Turkish politician and former head of the Organization of Islamic Cooperation, Ekmeleddin Ihsanoğlu, as well as a coterie of British imams.  These condemnations are good, but more, and more official ones, are needed.  Where are the fatwas from the world’s most influential Muslim, Dr. Ahmad Muhammad al-Tayyib, rector of al-Azhar; or Dr. Ali Guma, former Grand Mufti of Egypt?  Kinetic—military—operations against the IS are  of course necessary, and are currently being carried out by the likes of Ansar al-Islam and, most doggedly, Jaysh Rijal al-Tariqah al-Naqshbandiyah (“Army of the Men of the Naqshandi [Sufi] Order”).   Although composed primarily of former Saddam Hussein government and military members, many of his Ba`ath (Arab Socialist) party, it seems that many in JRTN are also practicing Sufis—Islamic mystics.  The Naqshbandi order is one of the oldest and perhaps the largest of the dozens (at least) of extant Sufi networks, and it has historically been the one most prone to waging violent jihad; for example, Naqshbandis fought many insurrections against the Ottoman Empire.  If the newly-minted caliph indeed has Mahdist aspirations, there is perhaps no group better suited to beat it out of him and his followers.   Still,  it’s possible for opponents of the IS to win the shooting war but lose the ideological one.  

The Caliphate has returned, whether we like it or not.  The IS, as evidenced by Dabiq, clearly thinks the eschatological clock is ticking.  Let’s hope it won’t be necessary to raise the Mahdist alarm.

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Dabiq might go something like this.  (Credit to AlanGutierrezArt. I hope the print of this I ordered arrives soon!)
12:31 am edt          Comments

Saturday, July 5, 2014

Little Sympathy for the Devil: Sunni Muslims Critique ISIS' Caliphate
C.S. Lewis said that two equally unfortunate errors can be made regarding the devil.  One is to deny his existence; the other is to be overly fascinated with him and overestimate his power.  Such is also good advice regarding the new caliphate proclaimed by the “Islamic State [of Iraq and al-Sham]”:  this challenge to the geopolitical order cannot simply be laughed off as a bad Muslim joke; but neither should the pretensions of “Caliph Ibrahim” (Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, né Ibrahim Ali al-Badri) be treated as if the Ottoman caliphate was once again lording it over the Middle East and threatening to march on Vienna or Rome.  

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An Ottoman caliphal standard--from back in the day, when few argued about the caliph's legitimacy.

 
As I observed in several  immediately previous posts, the major strength of the “Islamic State”—and the one characteristic which largely differentiates it from al-Qa`idah—is that it holds substantial contiguous territory, and in the Islamic heartland (not on failing state peripheries).   This very strength, however, also represents a grave weakness, for it makes the IS vulnerable to air strikes and other modes of conventional warfare.However, kinetic operations, while almost certainly necessary, will prove insufficient to destroy this new Islamic polity.   Some measure of political and, yes, religious de-legitimization must be meted out—and this can only be done by Muslim authorities, not by Western and Christian leaders.    

And that might be happening.  As of this writing, three Islamic entities and one prominent individual have already rejected “Caliph Ibrahim:”  
1) Prominent and influential Sunni Salafi (Islamic literalist/fundamentalis) shaykhs in Lebanon have outright rejected “Caliph Ibrahim.”  These Salafis do not question the caliphate per se, of course; rather their scorn derives from the fact that “these [ISIS] people are not the ones who deserve to declare something as great as the Islamic caliphate” and that ISISites have “rushed” doing so, sans the “foundations” of a caliphate, which do not yet exist. 
2) Three branches of the global Hizb al-Tahrir (“Party of Liberation”) movement—which for 50 years has been working to resurrect the caliphate—have scorned the “Islamic State.”  The Lebanese spokesman said that the caliphate would not be resurrected via “blood, charges of apostasy and explosions.”  HT's Jordanian mouthpiece averred that since ISIS lacked a legitimate predecessor sultan, or “political leader,” it could not leapfrog to the higher office of caliphate.  And the HT representative in the UK critiqued the new “caliphate” on two fronts: not having firm control of, and being recognized as politically legitimate in, the Syria-Iraq region; and for not having drawn loyalty (ba`yah) from important Islamic sectors and leaders.  
3) Professors and experts in Islamic history and law at al-Azhar Mosque/University in Cairo have belittled the new “caliphate” for various and sundry reasons.  As might be expected, many of the faculty at this august Sunni institution derided ISIS as a mere terrorist organization, unworthy of the caliphate—although at least one expressed conspiracy theory-level drivel that ISIS was a creation of “Western intelligence.”  Yet another, a professor of shari`ah, laughably stated that “there is no political caliphate associated with Islam”—which would have been news to the Abbasids, Fatimids and Ottomans, among others.    

However, let it be noted that “so far, al-Azhar has not issued any official stance regarding ISIS.”  Until such time as the Grand Imam, Shaykh Ahmad Muhammad al-Tayyib—currently ranked the #1 most influential Muslim on the planet—decides to do so, the caliphal “Islamic State” under its “Caliph Ibrahim” will remain at least quasi-legitimate in the eyes of too many Muslims.  Had the Obama Administration not poisoned the well in Egypt, by its myopic and misguided support for the Muslim Brotherhood, it might have sufficient pull there to help persuade the government in Cairo of the need for al-Azhar to get into the IO/IW/Strategic PSYOP fight against ISIS.  But since POTUS and his State Department took sides against al-Azhar (which was, and is, anti-MB), such support from al-Sisi is probably out of reach.   

4) Influential free-lance Sunni cleric Yusuf al-Qaradawi has condemned the IS caliphate as contravening shari`ah—although he has not spelled out exactly this is the case.  

The other major Islamic entity—albeit more political than religious—that might weigh in against the  “Islamic State” is the multi-state, transnational Organization of Islamic Cooperation.  Yet, to date, the OIC has been silent on the issue.  One wonders where President Obama’s much-ballyhooed representative to the OIC, Rashad Husain, is, and why POTUS hasn’t dispatched him to rally international Muslim opinion against “Caliph Ibrahim.”Perhaps an administration that refuses to admit the historical reality of jihad also has its head buried deep in the sand regarding the Islamic validity, and thus menace, of a jihadist caliphate in the heart of the Middle East.   
 

Note: none of these four Islamic critiques of “Caliph Ibrahim” really addresses the seven prerequisites for the caliphate spelled out by Ibn Khaldun six centuries ago.  Most aformentioned attacks are mere ad hominem ones, which will frankly fail to undermine the “Islamic State.”  Predictions of the new caliphate’s inevitable and imminent demise might well be overstated in the absence of such Muslim ideological undermining of the polity's plausible bases. 

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2:35 pm edt          Comments

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Jamkaran Mosque near Qom, Iran (during my trip there Aug. 2008)

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